Dr. Smith: Understanding self-harm

Why is my child doing this? What is going on with youth.

“Why would my daughter do this?”

That’s what bewildered parents plead to me and other mental health professionals in B.C. too often these days. The youth – often but not always – is a female  between ages 10 and 19 who is being treated for one of a variety of forms of self harm. Self-harm exists along a spectrum anywhere from self-injuries such as  cutting herself with a sharp object, repeatedly hitting herself, or burning herself, or sometimes even poisoning herself with medications or noxious substances.

In the last five years, children and youth rates for hospitalization and ER visits for self-harm have soared. This past November, a special Canadian study on self-harm found that since 2009 self-harm hospitalization rates for girls have increased by more than 110 per cent and ER visits by 98 per cent. While hospitalization rates for self harm were four times more common among girls, rates among boys had also increased substantially in the study.

What is going on?

While good research about self harm is just emerging, my mental health colleagues and I believe some reasons may be worth further investigation: feelings of disconnection among youth from loved ones and from themselves; youth feeling insignificant and unworthy; the dominant 24/7 online culture that magnifies bullying and social pressure and ramps up stress; and the normalization of self harm that youth find via the Internet. As well, self-harm, rather than being hidden or dismissed as in the past, is now being more recognized.

At the heart of most self harm is usually psychological pain and a disordered way of coping with unbearable feelings or an inability to regulate emotional responses under stressful situations (somewhat similar to various addictions or eating disorders). Youth will often tell me that only way to relieve their emotional pain is by hurting themselves. Sometimes it is the lack of feeling that compels them to  self harm. Youth will say they feel empty, numb, as if they don’t exist: “Feeling the pain feels better than feeling nothing at all.” For others, it gives a sense of control , that rather than being the victim of others inflicting pain on them, they are the ones controlling their own pain.

While self-harm occurs among B.C. youth from all sectors of society, it is more common among youth who are socially or economically disadvantaged: who have past trauma, neglect or abuse; who have other diagnosed mental health conditions or other illnesses; and who have uncertainty about  their sexual orientation or who have recently come out in the youth LGBQT community.

While self-injury such as cutting and burning is usually distinct from direct suicidal behaviour, youth who self-harm in these ways are many times more likely than the general population to eventually complete suicide. So it is very important that the youth gets effective help.

I am particularly concerned that self harm in the form of ingesting poison – taking high doses of over-the-counter medication, prescription medication or ingesting a noxious substance – often represents a true suicide attempt in youth. Parents and health professionals must take poisoning actions very seriously and ensure the youth gets appropriate, urgent help through emergency services.

In non-urgent self-harm situations, the first step is to see your family doctor or contact the Child and Youth Mental Health program provided by the Ministry of Children and Family Development in your region. Call Service BC at 1-800-661-8773 for the MCFD office nearest to you.

Good information and support can be found through links at the Canadian Mental Health Association (cmha.ca ), the Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre (keltymentalhealth.ca) and heretohelp.bc.ca. As well, an excellent resource is the website for the National Interdisciplinary Network on Self-Harm, led by Dr. Mary Kay Nixon, a Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist in Victoria (insync-group.ca).

Treatment focuses on addressing the underlying issues that are causing the pain and teaching the youth more effective coping skills and stress reduction techniques. Cognitive behavioural therapy, group therapy,  and dialectic behavioural therapy can be very helpful for these skills. Medications may be given if co-existing depression, anxiety  or psychosis are part of the underlying issues. Adults – parents, relatives, teachers, coaches, mentors – have a very important role in helping to support the youth to increase the youth’s feelings of connection. Teaching youth healthy ways to express feelings of pain and anger, and new ways to cope with life’s stresses can also help youth leave self harm behind.

Dr. David Smith is an adolescent and adult psychiatrist and the medical director of the Okanagan Psychiatric services for Interior Health. This series of columns on common child and youth mental health issues is a project of the Child and Youth Mental Health and Substances Use Collaborative. The Collaborative involves multiple individuals, organizations and ministries all working together across BC to increase the number of children, youth, and their families receiving timely access to mental health services. The Collaborative is jointly funded by Doctors of BC and the government of BC.

Just Posted

Environment, finance top of mind for new Surrey Councillor Steven Pettigrew

Unexpected advocacy led to political mentorship, says first-term councillor

Noted fiddlers bring kids to Surrey stage for ‘A Celtic Family Christmas’ concert

Bell theatre date for Natalie MacMaster and Donnell Leahy as they reunite for 23-city tour of Canada

South Surrey native wins ‘Oscars of hairdressing’ award

Simon James named Contessa 2019 Texture Hairstylist of the Year

Surrey-based business donates $1M to hospital’s children centre improvements

Surrey Hospital Foundation kicks off campaign for ‘transformation’ of children’s centre

OUR VIEW: Surrey’s unsung heroes inspire

The Now-Leader was proud to celebrate some deserving unsung heroes in this city on Wednesday night

Fashion Fridays: 5 coats you need this winter!

Kim XO, lets you know the best online shopping tips during Fashion Fridays on the Black Press Media Network

5 to start your day

BC Hydro says outages have tripled in the last five years, two men charged after alleged butter thefts and more

California wildfire death toll hits 63

Sheriff says hundreds still missing in nation’s deadliest wildfire

Harsh storms have nearly tripled power outages in last five years, BC Hydro says

More frequent and severe storms have damaged Hydro’s electrical systems since 2013

Trudeau to meet key Pacific trade partners at APEC leaders’ summit

Canada became one of the first six countries to ratify the CPTPP

Judge orders White House to return press pass to CNN’s Acosta

U.S. District Court Judge will decide on White House press credentials of CNN reporter Jim Acosta

WikiLeaks chief could see charges, US court filing suggests

Charges against Julian Assange could help illuminate the question of whether Russia co-ordinated with the Trump campaign

Federal MPs denounce controversial Facebook post targeting Sajjan

Okanagan Conservatives apologize for controversial Facebook post

Canada has enough pipelines to get the moon

Pipelines totalling 840,000 kilometres run across Canada

Most Read